International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering
Published by Chaoyang University of Technology

I-Shi Leea, c and Wen-Hsiang Tsai a, b,1

Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30010.
Department of Information Communication, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan 41354.
Department of Management Information Technology and Science, Institute of Northern Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan.


Download Citation: |
Download PDF


A secret communication method via web pages by embedding special space codes in HTML text to encode message bits in triplets is proposed. The codes, replacing the ASCII space code 20, appear as white spaces as well, creating a steganographic effect. Such codes are found by a systematic investigation of all the coding systems applicable in the HTML. Message hiding and recovery processes are also proposed. The character string of each message, before being embedded, is randomized with a secret key to enhance the security against illegal intercept and extraction. The embedded message is non-destructible unless the web page server is intruded. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: secret communication; data hiding; ASCII codes; space codes

Share this article with your colleagues



  1. [1] Katzenbeisser, S., and Petitolas, F. A. P. Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech House, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

  2. [2] Shirali-Shahreza, M. Dec. 2006. “Java applets copy protection by steganography”, of 2006 Int’l Conf. on Intelligent Information Hiding & Multimedia Signal Processing, Pasadena, California, U.S.A., 388-391.

  3. [3] Wu, D. C., and Lai, P. H. June, 2005. “Novel Techniques of Data Hiding in HTML Documents”, 2005 Conf. on Digital Contents Managements & Applications, 21-30, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

  4. [4] Wu,C. C., Chang, C. C., and Yang, S. R. 2007. “An efficient fragile watermarking for web pages tamper-proof”, in Advances in Web and Network Technologies, and Information Management, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4537, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 654-663.

  5. [5] Chang, Y. H., and Tsai, W. H. Dec. 2003. “A steganographic method for copyright protection of HTML documents”, of 2003 Nat’l Computer Symposium, Taichung, Taiwan.

  6. [6] Invisible Secrets. Retrieved May, 2008, from


Accepted: 2008-12-25
Available Online: 2008-11-01

Cite this article:

Lee, I-S., Tsai, W.-H. 2008. Secret communication through web pages using special space codes in HTML files. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 6, 141–149.

We use cookies on this website to improve your user experience. By using this site you agree to its use of cookies.