International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering
Published by Chaoyang University of Technology

Nikola Spicek 1, 4*, Svetlana Besklubova 2, Miroslaw J. Skibniewski 3, 5


1 International Doctoral Study in Project Management, Alma Mater Europaea, Slovenska Ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

2 Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong

3 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3021, USA

Project Leader, BMW Group, Munich, Germany

T.-S. Yang Honorary Distinguished Professor, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan


Download Citation: |
Download PDF


3D printing, an automated production process with layer-by-layer control, has undergone rapid development in recent years, but without the desired momentum. There has been no research to address the adaptation rate of 3D printing technology in the construction industry collectively, which is why the success factors of projects using 3D printing technology have been developed. The observed factors were Relative advantage, Complexity, Trialability, Compatibility, Absorptive capacity, External pressure, Uncertainty, Supply – side benefits and Demand – side benefits. Research questions are reconsidering how success factors are applicable through case studies of 3D printing and how the same factors behave in the context of conventional construction. These factors were verified through two different case studies (only shells of the construction - one 3D printing technology construction and one conventional construction, both in Germany). In this paper, the 7-step methodology was implemented to answer the research question. The contribution of this study is to supplement the body of knowledge by validating the above success factors as a credible tool for assessing the success of construction projects using 3D printing technology and as a possibility of application to future construction projects before deciding on the method of construction. Factors showed relative similarity in performance in both cases with certain differences and specifics for 3D printing technology. Both technologies have demonstrated specific advantages and disadvantages when compared to each other. It is important to establish a mechanism for evaluating these factors. This will serve as a decision-making tool for future investors in determining which construction method to choose. Nevertheless, it can be said that, in some views, 3D printing of buildings will never be profitable without combining it with conventional construction.

Keywords: 3D printing technology, success factors, conventional construction, future application.

Share this article with your colleagues



  1. Aghimien, D., Aigbavboa, C., Aghimien, L., Thwala, W.D., Ndlovu, L. 2020. Making a case for 3D printing for housing delivery in South Africa. International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, 13, 565–581.

  2. Ahmed, R.R., Zhang, X. 2021. Multi-stage network-based two-type cost minimizationfor the reverse logistics management of inert construction waste. Waste Management, 120, 805–819.

  3. Almahamid, S.M., Almurbati, N., Al-Alawi, A.I., Fataih, M.A. 2022. What determines 3D printing adoption in the GCC region? Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 14, 912–940.

  4. Başgöze, P. 2015. Integration of technology readiness (TR) into the technology acceptance model (TAM) for m-shopping. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, 2, 26–35.

  5. Besklubova, S., Skibniewski, M.J., Zhang, X. 2021. Factors affecting 3D printing technology adaptation in construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 147, 04021026.

  6. Buswell, R.A., Thorpe, A., Soar, R.C., Gibb, A.G.F. 2008. Design, data and process issues for mega-scale rapid manufacturing machines used for construction. Automation in Construction, 17, 923–929.

  7. Camacho, D.D., Clayton, P., O’Brien, W.J., Seepersad, C., Juenger, M., Ferron, R., Salamone, S. 2018. Applications of additive manufacturing in the construction industry–A forward-looking review. Automation in Construction, 89, 110–119.

  8. Chaudhuri, A., Rogers, H., Soberg, P., Pawar, K.S. 2019. The role of service providers in 3D printing adoption. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 119, 1189–1205.

  9. Davis, F.D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 319–340.

  10. Donaldson, L. 2001. The contingency theory of organizations. SAGE Publications, Inc.

  11. Ghaffar, S.H., Corker, J., Fan, M. 2018. Additive manufacturing technology and its implementation in construction as an eco-innovative solution. Automation in Construction, 93, 1–11.

  12. Ma, G., Buswell, R., da Silva, W.R.L., Wang, L., Xu, J., Jones, S.Z. 2022. Technology readiness: A global snapshot of 3D concrete printing and the frontiers for development. Cement and Concrete Research, 156, 106774.

  13. Mechtcherine, V., Nerella, V.N., Will, F., Näther, M., Otto, J., Krause, M. 2019. Large-scale digital concrete construction–CONPrint3D concept for on-site, monolithic 3D-printing. Automation in Construction, 107, 102933.

  14. Peri. 2022. PERI druckt erstes wohnhaus Deutschlands. Retrieved 2022-07-12 from

  15. Rogers, E.M. 2003. Elements of diffusion. Diffusion of Innovations, 5, 18–46.

  16. Tsai, C.-A., Yeh, C.-C. 2019. Understanding the decision rules for 3D printing adoption. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 31, 1104–1117.

  17. Ukobitz, D.V., Faullant, R. 2022. The relative impact of isomorphic pressures on the adoption of radical technology: Evidence from 3D printing. Technovation, 113, 102418.

  18. Won, D., Hwang, B.-G., Chi, S., Kor, J.-L. 2022. Adoption of three-dimensional printing technology in public housing in Singapore: Drivers, challenges, and strategies. Journal of Management in Engineering, 38, 05022010.

  19. Wu, P., Wang, J., Wang, X. 2016. A critical review of the use of 3-D printing in the construction industr. Automation in Construction, 68, 21–31.

  20. Wu, P., Zhao, X., Baller, J.H., Wang, X. 2018. Developing a conceptual framework to improve the implementation of 3D printing technology in the construction industry. Architectural Science Review, 61, 133–142.

  21. Yeh, C.-C. Chen, Y.-F. 2018. Critical success factors for adoption of 3D printing. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 132, 209–216.

  22. Yin, R.K. 2009. Case study research: Design and methods, 5. SAGE Inc.

  23. Zhao, M., Yang, J., Shu, C., Liu, J. 2021. Sustainability orientation, the adoption of 3D printing technologies, and new product performance: A cross-institutional study of American and Indian firms. Technovation, 101, 102197.


Received: 2022-10-31
Revised: 2023-09-27
Accepted: 2023-10-07
Available Online: 2023-12-01

Cite this article:

Spicek, N., Besklubova, S., Skibniewski, M.J. 2023. Benchmarking critical success factors in construction projects utilizing 3D printing technology. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 20, 2022296.

  Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.