International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering
Published by Chaoyang University of Technology

Mary M. Nweke1*, Franklin O. Chukwuma2, Benson O. Evbuomwan2, Akuma Oji2

1 World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence in Oilfield Chemicals Research (ACE-CEFOR), University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.


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Abattoir wastewater (ABW) is a major environmental pollutant in Nigeria and from its characteristics, if discharged directly to the environment, constitute a hazard to human life and aquatic life. The utilization of a locally available waste, papaya seed, as a source of bio-coagulant for the treatment of abattoir wastewater was examined in this research. To identify the optimum concentration for the extraction process, experiments were carried out utilizing 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 M of NaCl, 1 g/L dose of the coagulant and natural pH of the Abattoir effluent. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared) analysis was employed to determine the functional groups available in the extracted bio-coagulant. To establish the optimal coagulation conditions, the effects of process variables such as coagulant dosage (1 – 5 g/L), settling time (0 – 60 min), pH (2 – 10), and temperature (298 – 318K) were examined. Reduction efficiency of 91.38% was achieved at an optimum condition of 3 g/L, pH of 8, temperature of 318K and settling time of 20 min. The coagulation Kinetics studies were also carried out, which revealed that the process fitted well into the second-order coagulation reaction rate with a correlation coefficient of 0.898, coagulation rate constant of 0.00002 L/mg-min and coagulation time of 48.24 min. The study, therefore, revealed that extract from Papaya seed can effectively be used for turbidity reduction of Abattoir wastewater.

Keywords: Turbidity, Abattoir, Papaya seed, Coagulant, Kinetics.

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Received: 2021-08-19
Revised: 2022-02-11
Accepted: 2022-06-29
Available Online: 2022-08-31

Cite this article:

Nweke, M.M., Chukwuma, F.O., Evbuomwan, B.O., Oji, A., Turbidity reduction of abattoir wastewater by the coagulation-flocculation process using papaya seed extract. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 19, 2021355.

  Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

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