International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering
Published by Chaoyang University of Technology

Bo-Tsun Chena1, Jin-Jun Wangb, Helsin Wangc, Ta-Peng Changd, Zong-Ruei Yange

a Postdoctoral Researcher
b Ph.D. Candidate
c Project-Appointed Assistant Professor
d Professor
Ph. D. student
Department of Construction Engineering National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.


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There are many causes such as casting, loading, high temperature, etc., that may increase the void ratio or crack of concrete and thus affect its quality.  Evaluating the quality of concrete based on the measured values of internal P-wave velocity is commonly used in concrete engineering. Impact-echo method is one of the famous nondestructive methods to measure P-wave velocity for concrete. In this study, commercial software of finite element analysis, LS-DYNA, is used to simulate the transient analysis of a concrete slab of 200×1000×1000 mm subjected to an impact loading using the 2-D axisymmetric elements. The variables of concrete property in the numerical analysis include three different dynamic moduli of elasticity (20, 30 and 40 GPa) and three void ratios (0, 10 and 20 %). Numerical results show that, in average, the P-wave velocity of concrete slab decreases in the range of 11.80-11.93 % and 25.70-29.28 % with void ratio of 10 % and 20 %, respectively, for all three dynamic moduli of elasticity.

Keywords: Impact-echo; nondestructive method; LS-DYNA transient analysis; void; concrete.

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  2. [2] Hana, S. H., and Kim, J. K. 2004. Effect of temperature and age on the relationship between dynamic and static elastic modulus of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 34: 1219-1227.

  3. [3] ASTM C1383 "Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method"

  4. [4] Hsiao, J. F. 2002. “Study on Influence of Concrete Surface and Engineering Properties of Lightweight Concrete with Stress Wave”. Master thesis. Department of construction engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. (in Chinese)

  5. [5] Yang C. F. 2002. “Stress Wave Propa-gation in Impacted Concrete Structure Members”. Master thesis. Department of construction engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology. (in Chinese)


Accepted: 2009-03-25
Available Online: 2009-02-01

Cite this article:

Chen, B.-T., Wang, J.-J., Wang, H., Chang, T.-P., Yang, Z.-R. 2009. Effect of void ratio of concrete on evaluation of P-wave velocity by Impact-echo method. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 6, 199–205.